Revisions to the Young Schema Questionnaire using Rasch analysis: the YSQ-R

Ozgur Yalcin, Ida Marais, Chris Lee, Helen M. Correia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The aim of this study was to refine the YSQ-L3 by identifying the most statistically and clinically appropriate items for each Early Maladaptive Schema (EMS) using Rasch analysis.
Method: A Rasch analysis was undertaken on a large sample (N = 838) that included a heterogeneous clinical sample (N = 574) and a smaller non-clinical group (N = 264).
Results: Overall, 116 out of 232 items showed misfit across a number of statistical indicators. After the removal of these items, the fit improved for all subscales and showed good (.74) to excellent (.86) reliability with the exception of Enmeshment (.57). In line with previous research, items originally measuring Punitiveness were found to better fit two separate subscales, Punitiveness (Self) and Punitiveness (Other). Similarly, items assessing Emotional Inhibition fit better as two different constructs; Emotional Constriction, reflecting an over-control related to shame/embarrassment of showing emotions, and Fear of Losing Control, related to anxiety of the consequences if emotions are not contained.
Conclusion: This is the first study to apply a rigorous methodological process to item selection from the YSQ-L3. The findings of this study are significant given the wide use of this scale crossculturally in both clinical and research settings and offer a possible alternative to the current short form.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-20
Number of pages13
JournalAustralian Psychologist
Issue number1
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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