Based on morphology we review the cave-dwelling species of the pseudoscorpion genus Pseudotyrannochthonius (family Pseudotyrannochthoniidae) from mainland Australia and provide a brief account of their distribution and ecomorphology. Pseudotyrannochthonius eberhardi sp. n. is described from the Stockyard Creek karst in northern New South Wales and P. jonesi (Chamberlin 1962) is redescribed and illustrated from the Jenolan karst in Central New South Wales based on females. Both species show morphological features reminiscent of troglomorphism and appear to be short-range endemics that are restricted to their respective karsts. All other species previously recorded from subterranean habitats in mainland Australia are facultative cave dwellers that do not show major morphological adaptations towards life underground. © 2013 The Authors Australian Journal of Entomology © 2013 Australian Entomological Society.