Retinopathy prevalence, incidence and trajectories in type 2 diabetes: The Fremantle diabetes study phase II

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Aims: To determine diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence, incidence, and whether distinct trajectories are associated with DR-complicating Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Retinal photographs from Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2) participants with Type 2 diabetes recruited in 2008-2011 and who attended biennial assessments for up to 6 years were graded as no DR, mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR), moderate NPDR or severe NPDR/proliferative DR. Baseline DR prevalence, and the cumulative incidence of moderate NPDR or worse in those without DR at baseline, were calculated. Group-based DR trajectory modelling was performed. Logistic regression determined independent associates of incident moderate NPDR or worse and trajectory group membership. Results: Of 1521 participants (mean age 65.6 years, 52.1% males, median diabetes duration 9.0 years; 98% of all FDS2 participants with Type 2 diabetes) with gradable baseline photographs, 563 (37.0%) had DR. During a median 6.1 years of follow-up, 23 (3.2%) without baseline DR developed at least moderate NPDR (crude incidence 6.1/1000 person-years) with HbA(1c) the sole independent predictor (odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.62 [1.30-2.02] per 1% [11 mmol/mol] increase). Trajectory analysis showed two distinct groups, those with baseline/persistent DR (20%) and those remaining DR free (80%). Longer diabetes duration, insulin use, higher mean HbA(1c), higher mean systolic blood pressure and higher mean urinary albumin: creatinine ratio all increased the odds (p

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere15032
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Issue number4
Early online date20 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


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