Retinoic acid receptor expression and their polymorphisms in human breast cancer

Danny Mok

    Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

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    [Truncated] Retinoic acid is a natural compound belonging to a group of molecules called retinoids, which include vitamin A and its biologically active derivatives. Retinoic acid has been shown to induce cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro and to inhibit growth of a wide range of neoplastic cells, including those derived from mammary carcinomas. The effects of retinoic acid are mediated by nuclear receptors known as the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and three isotypes have been identified: RARα, β and γ. The RARs dimerize with a related nuclear receptor, RXR, and function as ligand-activated transcription factors by binding to retinoic acid response elements found in promoter region of target genes. Loss of expression of RARs has been documented in various diseases, including malignant cancers, although little information is available about the status of RARs in breast biopsies. This thesis hypothesised that decreased expression of RARs and the presence of polymorphisms in their mRNA are involved in the development and/or progression of human mammary carcinoma.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
    Awarding Institution
    • The University of Western Australia
    Publication statusUnpublished - 2002

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