Lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) encounters flooded soils that are anaerobic and chemically reduced. Exposure of the roots to high soil Fe2+ concentrations can result in toxicity. Internal aeration delivering O 2 to submerged roots via the aerenchyma is well understood, but the effect of Fe2+ on O2 transport in roots is less studied. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Fe2+ on growth and root aeration. O. sativa var. Amaroo was grown in aerobic and deoxygenated solutions with 0mM, 0.18mM, 0.36mM, 0.54mM or 0.72mM Fe2+ using FeSO4.7H 2O and a control with 0.05mM Fe-EDTA. The treatments were imposed on 14-day-old plants (28-30 days old when harvested). Dry mass, shoot Fe concentration, root porosity and patterns of radial O2 loss (ROL) along roots were determined. In the aerobic solution, where Fe2+ was oxidised in the bulk medium, root dry mass increased with higher Fe 2+; this was not the case in stagnant solutions, which had no significant root growth response, although Fe oxidation near the root surface was visible as a precipitate. In the highest Fe2+ treatment, shoot Fe concentrations in aerobic (667mgkg-1) and stagnant (433mgkg -1) solutions were below the level for toxicity (700mgkg -1). Rice responded to high Fe2+ in aerobic conditions by increasing root porosity and inducing strong barriers to ROL. In stagnant conditions, root porosity was already high and the ROL barrier induced, so these root aeration traits were not further influenced by the Fe2+ concentrations applied. © CSIRO 2014.