Background. We assessed replication and excretion of the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) into biological fluids following vaccination in dengue-naive adults in Australia.
Methods. Vaccinal viremia/shedding was assessed in a subset of participants enrolled in a lot-to-lot consistency study; 95 participants received 3 subcutaneous doses of CYD-TDV from phase 2/3 lots of the vaccine, and 8 received placebo; doses were administered 6 months apart. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to initially detect the yellow fever virus (YFV) core protein gene in the backbone of CYD-TDV in serum, saliva and urine, followed by serotype-specific qRT-PCR analysis of samples positive for YFV by qRT-PCR (lower limit of detection, 5.16 GEq/mL).
Results. YFV viremia was detected by qRT-PCR in 69.5% of participants (66 of 95) who received CYD-TDV, mainly 6-14 days after injection 1. The serotypes detected were serotype 4 (in 68.2% of participants [45 of 95]), serotype 3 (in 19.7% [13 of 95]), and serotype 1 (in 12.1% [8 of 95]); serotype 2 was not detected. None of the placebo recipients had vaccinal viremia/shedding. No participants had detectable viral shedding into saliva at levels above the lower limit of quantitation. Two participants had low-level viral shedding (serotype 3) in urine (5.47 and 5.77 GEq/mL). None of the participants with viremia or shedding experienced concomitant fever.
Conclusions. Low-level vaccinal viremia may occur following vaccination with CYD-TDV, but this is not associated with any symptom or adverse event.