Aims: With increasing attention to renovascular causes and targets for hypertension there arises a critical need for more detailed knowledge of renal arterial anatomy. However, a standardised nomenclature is lacking. The present study sought to develop a standardised nomenclature for renal anatomy considering the complexity and variation of the renal arterial tree and to assess the applicability of the nomenclature. Methods and results: One thousand hypertensive patients underwent invasive selective renal artery angiography in nine centres. Further, renovasography was performed in 249 healthy swine as a surrogate for normotensive anatomy. Anatomical parameters were assessed by quantitative vascular analysis. Patients' mean blood pressure was 168/90±26/17 mmHg. The right main renal artery was longer than the left (41±15 mm vs. 35±13 mm, p<0.001), but the left had a greater diameter (5.4±1.2 vs. 5.2±1.2 mm, p<0.001). Accessory renal arteries and renal artery disease were documented in 22% and 9% of the patients, respectively. Other than exhibiting a longer left main renal artery in uncontrolled hypertensives (+2.7 mm, p=0.034) there was no anatomical difference between patients with controlled and uncontrolled hypertension. Main renal artery mean diameter was smaller in patients with impaired kidney function (GFR <90 ml/min, left -0.5 mm, right -0.4 mm, both p<0.001). Conclusions: Renal arterial anatomy differs between sides but shows no difference between patients with and without blood pressure control. Impaired GFR was associated with small main renal artery diameter.