We investigated stroke outcomes in normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.50 to 24.99 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.00 to 29.99 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) patients with atrial fibrillation treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin. We compared the incidence of stroke and systemic embolic events as well as bleeding events in normal weight (n = 3,289), overweight (n = 5,535), and obese (n = 5,206) patients in a post hoc analysis of the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation trial. Stroke and systemic embolic event rates per 100 patient-years were 2.93 in the normal weight group (reference group), 2.28 in the overweight group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99, p = 0.04) and 1.88 in the obese group (adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.86, p <0.001). The risk of stroke was statistically significantly lower for obese patients with BMI ≥35 than that for normal weight patients in both the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups (rivaroxaban: HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.96, p = 0.033; warfarin: HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.74, p <0.001). In conclusion, in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with anticoagulant therapy, increased BMI was associated with decreased stroke risk. Warfarin and the novel anticoagulant rivaroxaban are effective in stroke prevention in all subgroups of obese patients.