Relating off-premises alcohol outlet density to intentional and unintentional injuries

C. Morrison, Karen Smith, P. J. J. Gruenewald, W. R. R. Ponicki, J. P. P. Lee, P. Cameron

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    33 Citations (Scopus)


    AimsThis study investigated the hypotheses that (i) intentional and unintentional injuries occur more frequently in areas with greater density of off-premises alcohol outlets; and (ii) larger and chain outlets selling cheaper alcohol contribute more substantially to injury risk than smaller and independent outlets.DesignEcological cross-sectional.SettingFrom the 256 Statistical Area level 2 (SA2) census units in Melbourne, Australia, we selected a random sample of 62 units. There were 2119 Statistical Area level 1 (SA1) units nested within the selected SA2 units.ParticipantsThe selected units contained 295 off-premises outlets.MeasurementsTwo independent observers conducted premises assessments in all off-premises outlets, assessing the volume of alcohol available for sale (paces of shelf space), price (least wine price) and other operating characteristics (chain versus independent, drive-through). Outlet counts, assessed outlet characteristics and other area characteristics (population density, median age, median income, retail zoning) were aggregated within SA1 units. Dependent variables were counts of ambulance attended intentional injuries (assaults, stabbings, shootings) and unintentional injuries (falls, crush injuries and object strikes).FindingsIn univariable analyses, chain outlets were larger (r=0.383; P
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)56-64
    Number of pages9
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016


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