Regulatory Mechanisms of Vanillic Acid in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

Naser Aldin Lashgari, Nazanin M. Roudsari, Saeideh Momtaz, Amir H. Abdolghaffari, Stephen L. Atkin, Amirhossein Sahebkar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death globally. Activation of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are contributory to the development of CVD. Pharmacological activities of vanillic acid have been investigated suggesting that they may have therapeutic utility clinically. Given its phenolic nature, the anti-inflammatory and antiox-idant properties of vanillic acid have been shown to exert potent inhibitory activity against Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), Nod‐like receptor family protein (NLRP), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Mitogen-Activated Signaling Proteins (MAPK) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Vanillic acid has been shown to block pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppress inflammatory cascades. The inhibitory impact of vanillic acid on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxygen syn-thase (iNOS) expression has also been demonstrated. Vanillic acid reduces oxidative-related markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Here, we review the cardioprotective effects and mechanisms of action of vanillic acid in CVD. Current potential applications of vanillic acid in CVD are discussed concerning preclinical and clinical studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2562-2576
Number of pages15
JournalCurrent Medicinal Chemistry
Volume30
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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