Host NK cells can reject MHC-incompatible (allogeneic) bone marrow cells (BMCs), suggesting their effective role for graft-vs leukemia effects in the clinical setting of bone marrow transplantation. NK cell-mediated rejection of allogeneic BMCs is dependent on donor and recipient MHC alleles and other factors that are not yet fully characterized. Whereas the molecular mechanisms of allogeneic MHC recognition by NK receptors have been well studied in vitro, guidelines to understand NK cell allogeneic reactivity under the control of multiple genetic components in vivo remain less well understood. In this study, we use congenic mice to show that BMC rejection is regulated by haplotypes of the NK gene complex (NKC) that encodes multiple NK cell receptors. Most importantly, host MHC differences modulated the NKC effect. Moreover, the NKC allelic differences also affected the outcome of hybrid resistance whereby F, hybrid mice reject parental BMCs. Therefore, these data indicate that NK cell alloreactivity in vivo is dependent on the combination of the host NKC and MHC haplotypes. These data suggest that the NK cell self-tolerance process dynamically modulates the NK cell alloreactivity in vivo.