The enzyme deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF5A), a protein essential for cell growth. Using bioinformatic predictions and reporter gene assays, we have identified a 182-nt element within the DOHH 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) that contains a number of target sites for miR-331-3p and miR-642-5p. Quantitative RT-PCR studies demonstrated overexpression of DOHH mRNA and underexpression of miR-331-3p and miR-642-5p in several prostate cancer cell lines compared with normal prostate epithelial cells. Transient overexpression of miR-331-3p and/or miR-642-5p in DU145 prostate cancer cells reduced DOHH mRNA and protein expression and inhibited cell proliferation. We observed synergistic growth inhibition with the combination of miR-331-3p and miR-642-5p and mimosine, a pharmacological DOHH inhibitor. Finally, we identified a significant inverse relationship between the expression of miR-331-3p or miR-642-5p and DOHH in a cohort of human prostate cancer tissues. Our results suggest a novel role for miR-331-3p and miR-642-5p in the control of prostate cancer cell growth via the regulation of DOHH expression and eIF5A activity. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.