In the biomedical area, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has the potential to bring numerous unique applications, including better tactics for cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapy. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been the topic of many research and material applications throughout the last decade. Unlike small-molecule medications, NPs are defined by distinct physicochemical characteristics, such as a large surface-to-volume ratio, which allows them to permeate live cells with relative ease. The versatility of NPs as both therapeutics and diagnostics makes them ideal for a broad spectrum of illnesses, from infectious diseases to cancer. A significant amount of data has been participated in the current scientific publications, emphasizing the concept that NPs often produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a larger degree than micro-sized particles. It is important to note that oxidative stress governs a wide range of cell signaling cascades, many of which are responsible for cancer cell cytotoxicity. Here, we aimed to provide insight into the signaling pathways triggered by oxidative stress in cancer cells in response to several types of nanomaterials, such as metallic and polymeric NPs and quantum dots. We discuss recent advances in developing integrated anticancer medicines based on NPs targeted to destroy malignant cells by increasing their ROS setpoint.