The ever-increasing demand for agricultural food products, medicine, and other commercial sectors requires new technologies for agricultural practices and promoting the optimum utilization of natural resources. The application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) enhance the biomass production and yield of food crop while resisting harmful environmental stresses. Bio-mediated synthesis of ENMs are time-efficient, low-cost, environmentally friendly, green technology. The precedence of using a bio-mediated route over conventional precursors for ENM synthesis is non-toxic and readily available. It possesses many active agents that can facilitate the reduction and stabilization processes during nanoparticle formation. This review presents recent developments in bio-mediated ENMs and green synthesis techniques using plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria, including significant contributions to identifying major ENM applications in agriculture with potential impacts on sustainability, such as the role of different ENMs in agriculture and their impact on different plant species. The review also covers the advantages and disadvantages of different ENMs and potential future research in this field.