Among the Brassica oilseeds, canola (Brassica napus) is the most economically significant globally. However, its production can be limited by blackleg disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Lepstosphaeria maculans. The deployment of resistance genes has been implemented as one of the key strategies to manage the disease. Genetic resistance against blackleg comes in two forms: qualitative resistance, controlled by a single, major resistance gene (R gene), and quantitative resistance (QR), controlled by numerous, small effect loci. R-gene-mediated blackleg resistance has been extensively studied, wherein several genomic regions harbouring R genes against L. maculans have been identified and three of these genes were cloned. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanism of R gene and pathogen avirulence (Avr) gene interaction. Notably, these studies revealed a more complex interaction than originally thought. Advances in genomics help unravel these complexities, providing insights into the genes and genetic factors towards improving blackleg resistance. Here, we aim to discuss the existing R-gene-mediated resistance, make a summary of candidate R genes against the disease, and emphasise the role of players involved in the pathogenicity and resistance. The comprehensive result will allow breeders to improve resistance to L. maculans, thereby increasing yield.