© 2014 IEEE. High performance for face recognition systems occurs in controlled environments and degrades with variations in illumination, facial expression, and pose. Efforts have been made to explore alternate face modalities such as infrared (IR) and 3-D for face recognition. Studies also demonstrate that fusion of multiple face modalities improve performance as compared with singlemodal face recognition. This paper categorizes these algorithms into singlemodal and multimodal face recognition and evaluates methods within each category via detailed descriptions of representative work and summarizations in tables. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality for face recognition are analyzed. In addition, face databases and system evaluations are also covered.
Zhou, H., Mian, A., Wei, L., Creighton, D. C., Hossny, M., & Nahavandi, S. (2014). Recent advances on singlemodal and multimodal face recognition: A survey. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 44(6), 701-716. https://doi.org/10.1109/THMS.2014.2340578