Recent advances in synthetic pharmacotherapies for dyslipidaemias

Cesare R. Sirtori, Shizuya Yamashita, Maria Francesca Greco, Alberto Corsini, Gerald F Watts, Massimiliano Ruscica

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the demonstrated benefits of statins and injectable biologics, there is a need for new and safe oral agents for addressing classical lipid targets, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). LDL-C is unquestionably causal in the development of atherogenesis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but new options are required to address triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipoprotein(a). For hypercholesterolaemia, pitavastatin provides a very low dose and potent statin that does not adversely affect glucose metabolism; bempedoic acid acts at a biochemical step preceding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and is not associated with muscular side effects. For hypertriglyceridaemia, pemafibrate displays a unique and selective agonist activity on peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-α that does not elevate homocysteine or creatinine. Although omega-3 fatty acids supplementation is not effective in secondary prevention, high dose eicosapentaenoic ethyl ester can lead to a remarkable fall in first and recurrent events in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridaemia/low HDL-C. Gemcabene, a dicarboxylic acid regulating apolipoprotein B-100, is effective in reducing both cholesterol and triglycerides. Among cholesteryl ester transfer protein antagonists that elevate HDL-C, only anacetrapib reduces cardiovascular events. Probucol stimulates reverse cholesteryl ester transport, lowers LDL-C stabilizing plaques and may lower incidence of cardiovascular events. These agents, which act through novel mechanisms, afford good and potentially safe treatment choices that may increase adherence and the attainment of therapeutic targets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1576-1596
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Issue number15
Early online date6 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


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