PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of rhabdomyolysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Rhabdomyolysis is the acute breakdown of myofibres resulting in systemic changes that can be life-threatening. Environmental triggers, including trauma, exercise, toxins and infections, and/or gene defects can precipitate rhabdomyolysis. A schema (aptly titled RHABDO) has been suggested for evaluating whether a patient with rhabdomyolysis is likely to harbour an underlying genetic defect. It is becoming increasingly recognized that defects in muscular dystrophy and myopathy genes can trigger rhabdomyolysis, even as the sole or presenting feature. Variants in genes not previously associated with human disease have been identified recently as causative of rhabdomyolysis, MLIP , MYH1 and OBSCN . Our understanding of the pathomechanisms contributing to rhabdomyolysis have also improved with an increased awareness of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in LPIN1 , FDX2 , ISCU and TANGO2 -mediated disease. SUMMARY: An accurate genetic diagnosis is important for optimal clinical management of the patient, avoiding associated triggers and genetic counselling and cascade screening. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the genetics contributing to rhabdomyolysis, many patients remain without an accurate genetic diagnosis, suggesting there are many more causative genes, variants and disease mechanisms to uncover.