Reassessment of Large Dipole Moment Enhancements in Crystals: A Detailed Experimental and Theoretical Charge Density Analysis of 2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline

A.E. Whitten, P. Turner, W.T. Klooster, R.O. Piltz, Mark Spackman

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60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The molecular dipole moment of MNA in the crystal has been critically reexamined, to test the conclusion from an earlier experimental charge density analysis that it was substantially enhanced due to a combination of strong intermolecular interactions and crystal field effects. X-ray and neutron diffraction data have been carefully measured at 100 K and supplemented with ab initio crystal Hartree-Fock calculations. Considerable care taken in the measurement and reduction of the experimental data excluded most systematic errors, and sources of error and their effects on the experimental electron density have been carefully investigated. The electron density derived from a fit to theoretical structure factors assisted in the determination of the scale and thermal motion model. The dipole moment enhancement for MNA in the crystal is much less than that reported previously and only on the order of 30-40% (similar to 2.5 D). In addition to the dipole moment, experimental deformation electron density maps, bond critical point data, electric field gradients at hydrogen nuclei, and atomic and group charges all agree well with theoretical results and trends. Anisotropic modeling of the motion of hydrogen atoms, integral use of periodic ab initio calculations, and improved data quality are all aspects of this study that represent a considerable advance over previous work.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8763-8776
JournalThe Journal of Physical Chemistry Part A
Volume110
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

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