Realization of a knill-laflamme-milburn controlled-NOT photonic quantum circuit combining effective optical nonlinearities

Ryo Okamoto, Jeremy L. O'Brien, Holger F. Hofmann, Shigeki Takeuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


Quantum information science addresses how uniquely quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement can enhance communication, information processing, and precision measurement. Photons are appealing for their low-noise, lightspeed transmission and ease of manipulation using conventional optical components. However, the lack of highly efficient optical Kerr nonlinearities at the single photon level was a major obstacle. In a breakthrough, Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn (KLM) showed that such an efficient nonlinearity can be achieved using only linear optical elements, auxiliary photons, and measurement [Knill E, Laflamme R, Milburn GJ (2001) Nature 409:46-52]. KLM proposed a heralded controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for scalable quantum computation using a photonic quantum circuit to combine two such nonlinear elements. Here we experimentally demonstrate a KLM CNOT gate. We developed a stable architecture to realize the required four-photon network of nested multiple interferometers based on a displaced-Sagnac interferometer and several partially polarizing beamsplitters. This result confirms the first step in the original KLM "recipe" for all-optical quantum computation, and should be useful for on-demand entanglement generation and purification. Optical quantum circuits combining giant optical nonlinearities may find wide applications in quantum information processing, communication, and sensing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10067-10071
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes


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