Background: The administration of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) to colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Australia and impact of recent trial data has not been well reported. We aim to evaluate temporal trends in AC treatment and outcomes in real-world Australian patients. Methods: CRC patients were analyzed from 13 hospitals, stratified by stage (II or III) and three 5-year time periods (A: 2005–2009, B: 2010–2014, C: 2015–2019). Stage III was further stratified as pre- and post publication of the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy (IDEA) collaboration (March 2018). AC prescription, time-to-recurrence (TTR), and overall survival (OS) was compared across the time periods. Results: Of 3977 identified patients, 1148 (stage II: 640, stage III: 508), 1525 (856 vs. 669), and 1304 (669 vs. 635) were diagnosed in Period A, B, and C, respectively. Fewer patients in Period C received AC compared to Period B in stage II (10% vs. 15%, p <.01) and III (70% vs. 79%, p <.01). Post-IDEA, the proportion of patients receiving ≤3 months of oxaliplatin-based AC increased (45% vs. 13%, p <.01). The proportion of patients who remained recurrence free at 3 years was similar between time periods in stage II (A: 89% vs. B: 88% vs. C: 90%, p =.53) and stage III (72% vs. 76% vs. 72%, p =.08). OS significantly improved for stage II (80%–85%, p =.04) and stage III (69%–77%, <.01) from period A to B. Conclusion: AC use has moderately decreased over time with no impact on recurrence rates. Improved survival in more recent years despite similar recurrence rates may be related to improved baseline staging, better postrecurrence treatment, and reduced noncancer-related mortality.