Ready for O4 II: GRANDMA observations of Swift GRBs over eight weeks in spring 2022

I. Tosta e. Melo, J. G. Ducoin, Z. Vidadi, C. Andrade, V. Rupchandani, S. Agayeva, J. Abdelhadi, L. Abe, O. Aguerre-Chariol, V. Aivazyan, S. Alishov, S. Antier, J. M. Bai, A. Baransky, S. Bednarz, Ph Bendjoya, Z. Benkhaldoun, S. Beradze, M. A. Bizouard, U. BhardwajM. Blazek, M. Boër, E. Broens, O. Burkhonov, N. Christensen, J. Cooke, W. Corradi, M. W. Coughlin, T. Culino, F. Daigne, D. Dornic, P. A. Duverne, S. Ehgamberdiev, L. Eymar, A. Fouad, M. Freeberg, B. Gendre, F. Guo, P. Gokuldass, N. Guessoum, E. Gurbanov, R. Hainich, E. Hasanov, P. Hello, R. Inasaridze, A. Iskandar, N. Ismailov, A. Janati, T. Jegou du Laz, D. A. Kann, S. Karpov, R. W. Kiendrebeogo, A. Klotz, R. Kneip, N. Kochiashvili, A. Kaeouach, K. Kruiswijk, M. Lamoureux, N. Leroy, W. L. Lin, J. Mao, D. Marchais, M. Mašek, T. Midavaine, A. Moller, D. Morris, R. Natsvlishvili, F. Navarete, A. Nicuesa Guelbenzu, K. Noonan, K. Noysena, A. Oksanen, N. B. Orange, C. Pellouin, J. Peloton, H. W. Peng, M. Pilloix, A. Popowicz, T. Pradier, O. Pyshna, G. Raaijmakers, Y. Rajabov, A. Rau, C. Rinner, J. P. Rivet, A. S. Ryh, M. Sabil, T. Sadibekova, N. Sasaki, M. Serrau, A. Simon, A. Shokry, K. Smith, O. Sokoliuk, X. Song, A. Takey, P. Thierry, Y. Tillayev, D. Turpin, A. de Ugarte Postigo, V. Vasylenko, D. Vernet, L. Wang, F. Vachier, J. P. Vignes, X. F. Wang, X. Zeng, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims. We present a campaign designed to train the Global Rapid Advanced Network Devoted to the Multi-messenger Addicts (GRANDMA) network and its infrastructure to follow up on transient alerts and detect their early afterglows. In preparation for O4 II campaign, we focused on gamma-ray burst (GRB) alerts since they are expected to serve as the electromagnetic counterpart of gravitational-wave events. Our goal was to improve our response to the alerts and to start prompt observations as soon as possible, so that we may better prepare the GRANDMA network for the fourth observational run of LIGO-Virgo-Kagra (launched at the end of May 2023) and future missions such as SM. Methods. We set up a dedicated infrastructure and organized a rota of follow-up advocates (FAs) to guarantee round-the-clock assistance to our telescope teams, with an aim to receive, manage, and send out observational plans to our partner telescopes. To ensure a large number of observations, we focused on Swift GRBs whose localization errors were generally smaller than the GRANDMA telescopes’ field of view. This allowed us to bypass the transient identification process and focus on the reaction time and efficiency of the network. Results. During the ‘Ready for O4 II’ phase, 11 Swift/INTEGRAL GRB triggers were selected. Of these, nine fields had been observed and three afterglows had been detected (GRB 220403B, GRB 220427A, GRB 220514A) with 17 GRANDMA telescopes and 17 amateur astronomers from the citizen science project Kilonova-Catcher. Here, we highlight the GRB 220427A analysis, where our long-term follow-up of the host galaxy allowed us to obtain a photometric redshift of z = 0.82 ± 0.09 and its lightcurve evolution, as well as to fit the decay slope of the afterglows and study the properties of the host galaxy. Conclusions. During this eight-week-long GRB follow-up campaign, we successfully fulfilled our goal of training telescope teams for O4 and improving the associated technical toolkits. For seven of the GRB alerts, our network was able to start the first observations less than one hour after the GRB trigger time. We also characterized the network efficiency to observe GRB afterglow given the resulting time delay and limiting magnitude, and to its light curve evolution based on the observation of GRB 220427A.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA141
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Feb 2024


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