Rare earth elements associated with carbonatite-alkaline complexes in western Rajasthan, India: exploration targeting at regional scale

Malcolm Aranha, Alok Porwal, Manikandan Sundaralingam, Ignacio González-Álvarez, Amber Markan, Karunakar Rao

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10 Citations (Scopus)


A two-stage fuzzy inference system (FIS) is applied to prospectivity modelling and exploration-target delineation for rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with carbonatite-alkaline complexes in the western part of the state of Rajasthan in India. The design of the FIS and selection of the input predictor map are guided by a generalised conceptual model of carbonatite-alkaline-complex-related REE mineral systems. In the first stage, three FISs are constructed to map the fertility and favourable geodynamic settings, favourable lithospheric architecture for fluid transportation and favourable shallow crustal (near-surface) emplacement architecture, respectively, for REE deposits in the study area. In the second stage, the outputs of the above FISs are integrated to map the prospectivity of REE deposits in the study area. Stochastic and systemic uncertainties in the output prospectivity maps are estimated to facilitate decision-making regarding the selection of exploration targets. The study led to the identification of prospective targets in the Kamthai-Sarnu-Dandeli and Mundwara regions, where detailed project-scale ground exploration is recommended. Low-confidence targets were identified in the Siwana ring complex region, north and northeast of Sarnu-Dandeli, south of Barmer, and south of Mundwara. Detailed geological mapping and geochemical sampling together with high-resolution magnetic and radiometric surveys are recommended in these areas to increase the level of confidence in the prospectivity of these targets before undertaking project-scale ground exploration. The prospectivity-analysis workflow presented in this paper can be applied to the delineation of exploration targets in geodynamically similar regions globally, such as Afar province (East Africa), Paraná-Etendeka (South America and Africa), Siberia (Russia), East European Craton-Kola (eastern Europe), Central Iapetus (North America, Greenland and the Baltic region) and the pan-superior province (North America).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-518
Number of pages22
JournalSolid Earth
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2022


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