Context: Patients with glucocorticoid-dependent Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have increased fracture risk and reduced bone mineral density (BMD), often precipitating mobility loss. Objective: To investigate use of zoledronic acid (ZA) in DMD in improving BMD. Methods: Two arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial, set in pediatric hospitals across Australia and New Zealand. Sixty-Two (31 per arm) boys with glucocorticoid-dependent DMD between 6 and 16 years were included. Five ZA infusions (0.025 mg/kg at months 0, and 3, and 0.05 mg/kg at months 6, 12, and 18), plus calcium and vitamin D, were compared with calcium and vitamin D alone. The main outcome measures were change in lumbar spine (LS) BMD raw and Z-score by dual energy absorptiometry x-ray (DXA) at 12 and 24 months, secondary outcomes assessing mobility, fracture incidence, bone turnover, peripheral quantitative computerized (pQCT) and pain scores. Results: At 12 and 24 months, mean difference in changes of LS BMD Z-score from baseline was 1.2 SD (95% CI 0.9-1.5), higher by 19.3% (14.6-24.0) and 1.4 SD (0.9-1.9), higher by 26.0% (17.4-34.5) in ZA than control arms respectively (both P <. 001). Five controls developed Genant 3 vertebral fractures, 0 in the ZA arm. Mobility, pain, and bone turnover markers were similar between arms at 12 and 24 months. Trabecular BMC and vBMD pQCT at radius and tibia were greater at 12 months in the ZA cohort than control; the evidence for this difference remained at 24 months for radius but not tibia. Conclusion: ZA improved BMD in glucocorticoid-dependent DMD boys. Although the small cohort precluded demonstrable fracture benefit, improved BMD might reduce incident vertebral fracture.