Randomised controlled trial of perinatal vitamin D supplementation to prevent early-onset acute respiratory infections among Australian First Nations children: the 'D-Kids' study protocol

Michael J. Binks, Amy S. Bleakley, Susan J. Pizzutto, Michelle Lamberth, Verity Powell, Jane Nelson, Adrienne Kirby, Peter S. Morris, David Simon, E. Kim Mulholland, Geetha Rathnayake, Amanda J. Leach, Heather D'Antoine, Paul Licciardi, Tom Snelling, Anne B. Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Globally, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. While ARI-related mortality is low in Australia, First Nations infants are hospitalised with ARIs up to nine times more often than their non-First Nations counterparts. The gap is widest in the Northern Territory (NT) where rates of both acute and chronic respiratory infection are among the highest reported in the world. Vitamin D deficiency is common among NT First Nations neonates and associated with an increased risk of ARI hospitalisation. We hypothesise that perinatal vitamin D supplementation will reduce the risk of ARI in the first year of life. Methods and analysis: 'D-Kids' is a parallel (1:1), double-blind (allocation concealed), randomised placebo-controlled trial conducted among NT First Nations mother-infant pairs. Pregnant women and their babies (n=314) receive either vitamin D or placebo. Women receive 14 000 IU/week or placebo from 28 to 34 weeks gestation until birth and babies receive 4200 IU/week or placebo from birth until age 4 months. The primary outcome is the incidence of ARI episodes receiving medical attention in the first year of life. Secondary outcomes include circulating vitamin D level and nasal pathogen prevalence. Tertiary outcomes include infant immune cell phenotypes and challenge responses. Blood, nasal swabs, breast milk and saliva are collected longitudinally across four study visits: enrolment, birth, infant age 4 and 12 months. The sample size provides 90% power to detect a 27.5% relative reduction in new ARI episodes between groups. Ethics and disseminationThis trial is approved by the NT Human Research Ethics Committee (2018-3160). Study outcomes will be disseminated to participant families, communities, local policy-makers, the broader research and clinical community via written and oral reports, education workshops, peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberbmjresp-2023-001646
Number of pages11
JournalBMJ Open Respiratory Research
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes

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