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Aims Psychological distress and changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) may occur after screening for disease. Reporting outcomes related to potential benefits and harms of screening is a key recommendation in the guidelines for reporting high-quality trials or interventions. However, no reviews have directly investigated outcomes related to psychological distress and/or changes in HRQoL following imaging assessment of cardiovascular risk and communication of cardiovascular findings to asymptomatic adults. A scoping review was conducted to map research on psychological distress and/or HRQoL following screening. Methods and results Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, CINAHL, and EMBASE) were searched for articles that assessed psychological distress and/or HRQoL following screening. Two investigators independently screened titles and abstracts for all records retrieved using predefined criteria. Studies were conducted among active smokers, military personnel, athletes, post-menopausal women, and high-risk individuals. Seven constructs related to psychological distress and HRQoL appeared across 11 articles (randomized controlled trials, n = 4 and non-randomized studies, n = 7). Worry, depression, perceived stress, anxiety, and quality of life were most prominent. Multiple-item measures of psychological distress (e.g. Taylor Anxiety Score and Beck Depression Inventory) were used in 5/9 (56%) studies. Key findings on psychological distress and/or changes in HRQoL following screening were mixed. Conclusions Findings support the need for multiple-item measures with better psychometric properties to examine the psychological responses to screening results in future studies. Strategies to support individuals during and following vascular screening to maximise potential benefits of screening and minimize harms are discussed.