Proteins with high turnover rate in barley leaves estimated by proteome analysis combined with in planta isotope labeling

Clark Nelson, Ralitza Alexova, Richard Jacoby, Harvey Millar

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67 Citations (Scopus)


© 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved. Protein turnover is a key component in cellular homeostasis; however, there is little quantitative information on degradation kinetics for individual plant proteins. We have used15N labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of free amino acids and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of proteins to track the enrichment of15N into the amino acid pools in barley leaves and then into tryptic peptides derived from newly synthesized proteins. Using information on the rate of growth of barley leaves combined with the rate of degradation of14N-labeled proteins, we calculate the turnover rates of 508 different proteins in barley and show that they vary by more than 100-fold. There was approximately a 9-h lag from label application until15N incorporation could be reliably quantified in extracted peptides. Using this information and assuming constant translation rates for proteins during the time course, we were able to quantify degradation rates for several proteins that exhibit half-lives on the order of hours. Ourworkflow, involving a stringent series ofmass spectrometry filtering steps, demonstrates that 15N labeling can be used for large-scale liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of protein turnover in plants. We identify a series of abundant proteins in photosynthesis, photorespiration, and specific subunits of chlorophyll biosynthesis that turn over significantly more rapidly than the average protein involved in these processes. We also highlight a series of proteins that turn over as rapidly as the well-known D1 subunit of photosystem II. While these proteins need further verification for rapid degradation in vivo, they cluster in chlorophyll and thiamine biosynthesis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-108
JournalPlant Physiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014

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