Protective HLA-B57: T cell and natural killer cell recognition in HIV infection

Christian A. Lobos, Jonathan Downing, Lloyd J. D'Orsogna, Demetra S. M. Chatzileontiadou, Stephanie Gras

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Understanding the basis of the immune determinants controlling disease outcome is critical to provide better care to patients and could be exploited for therapeutics and vaccine design. The discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus as the causing agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decades ago, led to a tremendous amount of research. Among the findings, it was discovered that some rare HIV+ individuals, called HIV controllers (HICs), had the ability to control the virus and keep a low viral load without the need of treatment. This ability allows HICs to delay or avoid progression to AIDS. HIV control is strongly associated with the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in HICs. From the HIV protective HLAs described, HLA-B57 is the most frequent in HIC patients. HLA-B57 can present a large range of highly conserved Gag-derived HIV peptides to CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, both the focus of this review. So far there are limited differences in the immune response strength, magnitude, or receptor repertoire towards HIV epitopes that could explain viral control in HICs. Interestingly, some studies revealed that during early infection the large breadth of the immune response towards HIV mutants in HLA-B57+ HIC patients, might in turn influence the disease outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1339
Number of pages11
JournalBiochemical Society Transactions
Volume50
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2022

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