The concept of a pan-genome refers to intraspecific diversity in genome content and structure, encompassing both genes and intergenic space. Pan-genomic studies employ a combination of de novo sequence assembly and reference-based alignment to discover and genotype structural variants. The large size and complex structure of Triticeae genomes were for a long time an obstacle for genomic research in barley and its relatives. Now that a reference genome is available, computational pipelines for high-quality sequence assembly are in place, and sequence costs continue to drop, investigations into the structural diversity of the barley genome seem within reach. Here, we review the recent progress on pan-genomics in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, and the cereal crops rice and maize, and devise a multi-tiered strategy for a pan-genome project in barley. Our design involves: (1) the construction of high-quality de novo sequence assemblies for a small core set of representative genotypes, (2) short-read sequencing of a large diversity panel of genebank accessions to medium coverage and (3) the use of complementary methods such as chromosome-conformation capture sequencing and k-mer-based association genetics. The in silico representation of the barley pan-genome may inform about the mechanisms of structural genome evolution in the Triticeae and supplement quantitative genetics models of crop performance for better accuracy and predictive ability.