Prospective memory in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of comparative studies

Fu Chun Zhou, Wei Zheng, Li Lu, Yuan Yuan Wang, Chee H. Ng, Gabor S. Ungvari, Jun Li, Yu Tao Xiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Impairment of prospective memory (PM) in schizophrenia has gained increasing attention. This meta-analysis systematically examined PM impairment in schizophrenia. Methods: Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese Biomedical and China Journal Net databases) databases were systematically searched from their inception until August 14, 2017. Case-control studies of PM in schizophrenia were included. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random-effects model. Results: Twenty-nine case-control studies (n = 2492) were included in the analyses. The overall and three subtypes of PM were compared between patients with schizophrenia (n = 1284) and healthy controls (n = 1208). Compared to healthy controls, patients performed significantly poorer in overall (SMD = −1.125), time-based (SMD = −1.155), event-based (SMD = −1.068), and activity-based PM (SMD = -0.563). Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences between older and younger patients (SMD = -1.398 vs. -0.763), higher male predominance and no sex predominance (SMD = -1.679 vs. -0.800), lower and higher education level (SMD = -1.373 vs.-0.637), chronic and first-episode patients (SMD = -1.237 vs. -0.641) and between eco-valid and dual-task laboratory measurements (SMD = -1.542 vs. -0.725) regarding overall PM. Meta-regression analysis showed that higher negative symptom score was significantly associated with more severe overall PM impairment in patients (P = 0.022). Conclusions: In this meta-analysis the overall PM and all its subtypes, particularly the time-based PM, were significantly impaired in schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-71
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019


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