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Ambient-cured heavyweight geopolymer concrete (HWGC) is a new type of concrete that combines the benefits of both heavyweight concrete (HWC) and geopolymer concrete (GC). HWGC provides proper protection from the sources that emit harmful radiations in medical and nuclear industries. Furthermore, HWGC may also be used in offshore structures for pipeline ballasting and similar underwater structures. In this study, heavyweight aggregates (magnetite) have been used and replaced by normal-weight coarse aggregates in GC at volume ratios of 50, 75, and 100% to attain heavyweight classification according to British standards. This study investigates the impacts of high temperatures on standard ambient-cured geopolymer concrete and ambient-cured HWGC through its residual properties regarding compressive and tensile strengths, mass loss, spalling intensity, and flexural strength. The residual properties were examined by heating 100 × 200 mm cylinder specimens to 100, 300, 600, and 900 °C. The results indicated that the maximum compressive strengths of 40.1 and 39.0 MPa were achieved by HWGC at 300 and 100 °C, respectively. The overall result shows that the strength of HWGC increases by increasing magnetite aggregate proportion, while the mass loss, intensity of spalling, and loss of strengths is proportional to temperature after a certain point. Minor spalling with holes and cracking was observed only at 900 °C in HWGC.