Advances in imaging have enabled the identification of prostate cancer foci with an initial application to focal dose escalation, with subvolumes created with image intensity thresholds. Through quantitative imaging techniques, correlations between image parameters and tumour characteristics have been identified. Mathematical functions are typically used to relate image parameters to prescription dose to improve the clinical relevance of the resulting dose distribution. However, these relationships have remained speculative or invalidated. In contrast, the use of radiobiological models during treatment planning optimisation, termed biological optimisation, has the advantage of directly considering the biological effect of the resulting dose distribution. This has led to an increased interest in the accurate derivation of radiobiological parameters from quantitative imaging to inform the models. This article reviews the progress in treatment planning using image-informed tumour biology, from focal dose escalation to the current trend of individualised biological treatment planning using image-derived radiobiological parameters, with the focus on prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).