Proanthocyanidins-Loaded Nanoparticles Enhance Dentin Degradation Resistance

A. S. Fawzy, B. M. Priyadarshini, S. T. Selvan, Thong Beng Lu, Jennifer Neo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Previous studies reported that grapeseed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins (PAs), improves the biodegradation resistance of demineralized dentin. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a new GSE delivery strategy to demineralized dentin through loading into biodegradable polymer poly-[lactic-co-glycolic acid] (PLGA) nanoparticles on the biodegradation resistance in terms of structural stability and surface/bulk mechanical and biochemical properties with storage time in collagenase-containing solutions. GSE-loaded nanoparticles were synthetized by nanoprecipitation at PLGA/GSE (w/w) ratios of 100:75, 100:50, and 100:25 and characterized for their morphological/structural features, physicochemical characteristics, and drug loading, entrapment, and release. Nanoparticle suspensions in distilled water (12.5% w/v) were applied (1 min) to demineralized dentin specimens by simulating pulpal pressure. The nanoparticle delivery was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the GSE release from the delivered nanoparticles was further characterized. The variations in surface and bulk mechanical properties were characterized in terms of reduced elastic-modulus, hardness, nanoindentation testing, and apparent elastic-modulus with a storage time up to 3 mo. Hydroxyproline release with exposure to collagenase up to 7 d was estimated. An etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive was applied to investigate the morphology of the resin-dentin interface after nanoparticle delivery. Treatment with the GSE-loaded nanoparticles enhanced the collagen fibril structural resistance, reflected from the TEM investigation, and improved the biomechanical and biochemical stability of demineralized dentin. Nanoparticles having PLGA/GSE of 100:75 (w/w) showed the highest cumulative GSE release and were associated with the best improvement in biodegradation resistance. TEM/SEM showed the ability of the nanoparticles to infiltrate dentinal tubules' main and lateral branches. SEM revealed the formation of a uniform hybrid layer and well-formed resin tags with the presence of numerous nanoparticles located within the dentinal tubules and/or attached to the resin tag. This study demonstrated the potential significance of delivering collagen crosslinkers loaded into biodegradable polymer nanoparticles through the dentinal tubules of demineralized dentin on the biodegradation resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)780-789
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


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