Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare, clinically aggressive formof extranodal lymphoma. The vast majority of cases are histologically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but rarer subtypes are clinically important and must be recognized. In this review, we discuss the incidence, clinical presentation, and prognostic factors of PTL and present a summary of the recent advances in our understanding of its pathophysiology,which may account for the characteristic clinical features. Although outcomes for patients with PTL have historically been poor, significant gains have been made with the successive addition of radiotherapy (RT), full-course anthracycline-based chemotherapy, rituximab and central nervous system-directed prophylaxis.We describe the larger retrospective series and prospective clinical trials and critically examine the role of RT. Although rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone given every 21 days with intrathecal methotrexate and locoregional RT is the current international standard of care, a substantial minority of patients progress, representing an unmet medical need. Finally, wediscussnewtreatmentapproaches and recent discoveries that may translate into improved outcomes for patients with PTL.