To determine the effects of suckling on postpartum (pp) reproductive efficiency in Pelibuey ewes, two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, 112 ewes were randomly assigned to one of two groups at parturition: Without restriction of suckling (WRS) 24 h day(-1) for 60 days (n = 56), and Weaned Ewes (WE), weaned at 40 days pp (n = 56). On Day 30 pp, all ewes were given Prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha) and one of four treatments (n = 14): T I, intravaginal progestagen (FGA; 40 mg) for 12 days from day 30 pp + equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 300 UI) until 2 days before removing FGA; T2, FGA was applied for 12 days; T3, a second application of PGF2 alpha was given on day 40 pp + eCG on the same day; T4, a second injection of PGF2 alpha was applied on day 40 pp only. In all the analyzed characteristics, the best results were obtained in WE. Within the WE group, the best treatment (P 0.05) between RS and EW for the presentation of oestrus (96% vs. 92%), pregnancy (72% vs. 76%) or prolificacy (1.9 vs. 1.9), although group WRS did not perform (P <0.05) as well as groups RS and EW for any measure of performance. In conclusion, the combination of hormonal treatment (FGA plus eCG) with weaning at 7 or 40 days pp, or restricted suckling, improves postpartum reproductive efficiency in Pelibuey ewes, demonstrating the inhibitory role of suckling on postpartum reproduction in this breed. Crown Copyright (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.