Prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and its association with daily life factors in Japanese first-year university students

Hideki Shimamoto, Peter Eastwood, Martin Anderson, Koh Mizuno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


As lifestyles have shifted to favor nighttime activities, daytime sleepiness and sleep-related problems have become increasingly common in Japan. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is an adverse consequence of sleep loss and an important public health concern. EDS may cause academic difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and psychological dysfunction; therefore, it is a particularly important issue among university students. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of EDS and its associated lifestyle factors among Japanese university students. A questionnaire was completed by 1470 first-year university students, aged 19.0 (± 1.0) years. Using the questionnaire, we collected information on (1) demographic variables, (2) lifestyle variables, and (3) sleep habits and daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness was measured using the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, a frequently used subjective scale for assessing sleepiness. The overall prevalence of EDS was 57% (53% in men and 61% in women). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with EDS: female sex, exercise habits, long commuting times, later wake-up times, and shorter sleep duration. Given that more than 50% of first-year university students reported having EDS, interventions should be considered to decrease its risk, including educational programs that provide strategies to extend sleep duration and delay wake-up time. Such strategies may also be valuable for students with other potential risk factors, such as exercise habits or long commute times, that are associated with EDS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-40
Number of pages8
JournalSleep and Biological Rhythms
Issue number1
Early online dateJul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


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