Prevalence, Incidence, and Rates of Contract Cheating

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapterpeer-review


For university administrators, academic staff, and governments to appropriately respond to contract cheating, it is important to know its prevalence (the percentage of the student population engaging in contract cheating within a particular time period) and its incidence (the frequency of contract cheating among the active cheaters during the relevant period). However, it is likely that more is unknown than known about the prevalence of contact cheating and even less is known about its incidence. This chapter explores the various sources of data that provide information on the prevalence and incidence of contract cheating. The data sources and the research methodologies used to collect these data are critiqued. Despite the limitations of current knowledge, the best available data suggests that the prevalence and incidence of contract cheating is at a level that is problematic for the credibility of higher education. Methods for estimating the total contract cheating rate for a student population at any given time are suggested.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSecond Handbook of Academic Integrity
EditorsSarah Elaine Eaton
Place of PublicationSingapore
PublisherSpringer Reference
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)978-981-287-079-7
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Publication series

NameSpringer International Handbooks of Education
VolumePart F2304
ISSN (Print)2197-1951
ISSN (Electronic)2197-196X


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