Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Frailty in Asian Patients With Heart Failure: Insights From ASIAN-HF

Than Aung, Yan Qin, Wan Ting Tay, Nurul Sahiddah Binte Salahudin Bamadhaj, Chanchal Chandramouli, Wouter Ouwerkerk, Jasper Tromp, Inder Anand, A. Mark Richards, Chung Lieh Hung, Kanako Teramoto, Tiew Hwa Katherine Teng, Carolyn S.P. Lam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Frailty is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and can adversely impact outcomes. Objectives: This study examined the prevalence of frailty among Asian patients with HF, its association with 1-year outcomes, and if race-ethnicity, HF subtypes, and sex modify this relationship. Methods: In the multinational ASIAN-HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) registry, a baseline frailty index (FI) was constructed using a cumulative deficits approach with 48 baseline variables, and patients were followed for the 1-year primary outcome of all-cause death or HF hospitalization. Results: Among 3,881 participants (age 61 ± 13 years, 27% female), the mean FI was 0.28 ± 0.11, and 69% were frail (FI >0.21). Higher FI was associated with older age, Malay ethnicity, and Southeast Asian residency. While comorbidities were more frequent in frail patients (by definition), body mass index was not different across frailty classes. Compared with FI class 1 (<0.21, nonfrail), FI class 2 (0.21-0.31) and FI class 3 (>0.31) had increased risk of the 1-year composite outcome (hazard ratios of 1.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.38] and 4.51 [95% CI: 3.59-5.67], respectively), even after multivariable adjustment (adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 [95% CI: 1.13-1.97] and 2.69 [95% CI: 2.06-3.50], respectively). Race-ethnicity modified the association of frailty with the composite outcome (Pinteraction = 0.0097), wherein the impact of frailty was strongest among Chinese patients. The association between frailty and outcomes did not differ between men and women (Pinteraction = 0.186) or for HF with reduced ejection fraction versus HF with preserved ejection fraction (Pinteraction = 0.094). Conclusions: Most Asian patients with HF are frail despite relatively young age. Our results reveal specific ethnic (Malay) and regional (Southeast Asia) predisposition to frailty and highlight its prognostic importance, especially in Chinese individuals. (ASIAN HF Registry, A Prospective Observational Study [ASIANHF]; NCT01633398)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)303-313
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Asia
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


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