Background: : Few studies have estimated the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorder (BP) in agricultural areas of China. This study examined the one-month and lifetime prevalence of BP, its subtypes and socio-demographic factors in the adult population of Hebei province, a predominantly agricultural area of China. Methods: : A multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling method was used to estimate the prevalence and correlates of BP in adults in Hebei province, China. The expanded version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P/C) were administered to establish the diagnosis of BP. Results: : A total of 20,884 participants were screened. The weighted lifetime prevalence of BP, BP type I (BP-I), type II (BP-II), and BP not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) were 0.20% (95% CI: 0.14–0.26%), 0.13% (95% CI: 0.08–0.18%), 0.03% (95% CI: 0.009–0.06%) and 0.03% (95% CI: 0.009–0.06%), respectively. The weighted one-month prevalence estimates were 0.12% (95% CI: 0.08–0.17%) for BP, 0.07% (95% CI: 0.04–0.11%) for BP-I, 0.03% (95% CI: 0.006–0.05%) for BP-II, and 0.02% (95% CI: 0.003–0.04%) for BP-NOS. Multiple Poisson regression analysis revealed that positive family history of any psychiatric disorder (P<0.001, OR=6.48, 95% CI: 2.53–16.56) was significantly associated with greater risk of BP. Conclusion: : The prevalence of BP in Hebei province appears lower than in most areas of China and other countries. Continued surveillance of BP in China along with the development of primary and tertiary preventative interventions for psychiatric disorders is indicated.