Prevalence and characteristics of paediatric X-linked hypophosphataemia in Australia and New Zealand: Results from the Australian and the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Units survey

Jessica L. Sandy, Carlos Nunez, Benjamin J. Wheeler, Craig Jefferies, Anne Morris, Aris Siafarikas, Christine P. Rodda, Peter Simm, Andrew Biggin, Sonya Aum, Elizabeth J. Elliot, Craig F. Munns

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common heritable form of rickets. Prevalence data varies across the literature between 1 in 20,000 and 1 in 200,000 per population. Methods: Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Units collected cross-sectional data from paediatricians on existing cases to estimate prevalence and characteristics of paediatric XLH in Australia and New Zealand. Results: Seventy-five cases in Australia and 18 cases in New Zealand were identified. Estimated minimum prevalence based on these cases was 1.33 (1.04–1.66) per 100,000 and 1.60 per 100,000 (95%CI 0.97–2.58) in Australia and New Zealand respectively, with actual prevalence likely higher due to incomplete ascertainment. Despite a family history in most cases, delayed diagnosis was common, with 49 % diagnosed after 2 years of age. Delayed diagnosis was more common in sporadic versus familial cases. Most common clinical characteristics included leg bowing (89 %), bone and joint pain (68 %), abnormal gait (57 %) and short stature (49 %). There was a significant burden of orthopaedic disease and surgeries and a high rate of complications of nephrocalcinosis and hyperparathyroidism (32 % and 20 % respectively). Additionally, while guidelines stress the importance of multidisciplinary care, many did not have access to recommended health professionals, with only 3 % seeing a psychologist and 68 % seeing a dentist. This is despite the high psychological burden of XLH and a significant proportion (41 %) of this cohort having dental issues (tooth abscess, dental capping, tooth extraction). There were two cases from NZ without data available. Of the 91 cases with data collected, 46 % were on burosumab therapy. Consistent with clinical trials, those on burosumab had a higher serum phosphate levels (p < 0.001) at most recent follow-up. Three cases reported cancellation of orthopaedic surgery due to improvement in lower limb deformity after commencement of burosumab. Conclusion: These data describe the multisystem burden of disease for children with XLH with care impacted by delayed diagnosis and a lack of access to many health professionals, especially psychological support.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116791
JournalBone
Volume173
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

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