© 2016 The Authors Internal Medicine Journal. Background: Despite gout and hyperuricaemia being major comorbid health issues worldwide, there is a knowledge gap regarding their impact in the Australian community. Aims: To determine the prevalence and associations of self-reported medically diagnosed gout and hyperuricaemia in an Australian population-based cohort. Methods: The North West Adelaide Health Study is a longitudinal cohort study consisting of three stages of data collection. Each stage comprised a self-complete questionnaire, clinic assessment and computer-assisted telephone interview. In Stage 3 (2008-2010), participants were asked if a doctor had ever diagnosed them with gout. Additional data included demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data and Short Form 36 (SF-36). Participants were defined as having gout if they had self-reported medically diagnosed gout or were taking any gout-specific medication (allopurinol, colchicine, probenecid). Hyperuricaemia was defined as a serum uric acid (SUA) level >0.42 mmol/L in men and >0.34 mmol/L in women. Results: The overall prevalence of gout was 5.2%. Males were significantly more likely to have gout than females (8.5 vs 2.1%, P <0.001). The overall prevalence of hyperuricaemia was 16.6%, with being male again identified as a significant risk factor (17.8 vs 15.4%, P <0.01). Both gout and hyperuricaemia were associated with male sex, body mass index and renal disease after multivariable adjustment. There was no significant difference reported in quality of life (mean SF-36) scores in participants with gout compared to unaffected individuals. Conclusion: The prevalence of gout and hyperuricaemia is high in the South Australian population. This study emphasises the need for optimal diagnosis and management of gout in Australia.