Pressure transmission across the respiratory system at raised lung volumes in infants

D.J. Turner, C.J. Lanteri, Peter Lesouef, P.D. Sly

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13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Forced expiratory flow-volume (FEFV) curves can be generated from end-tidal inspiration in infants with use of an inflatable jacket. We have developed a technique to raise lung volume in the infant before generation of FEFV curves. Measurements of pressure transmission to the airway opening by use of static maneuvers have shown no change with increasing lung volume above end-tidal inspiration. The aim of this study was to determine, under dynamic conditions (i.e., during rapid thoracic compression), whether the efficiency of pressure transmission across the chest wall is altered by raising lung volume above the tidal range. Dynamic pressure transmission (Ptx,dyn) was measured in five infants (age 6-17 mo). Jacket pressure (Pj), esophageal pressure, and volume were measured throughout passive and FEFV curves at lung volumes set by 10, 15, and 20 cmH(2)O preset pressure. The group mean Ptx,dyn was 37 +/- 6% (SE) of Pj at end-tidal inspiration, and no change was seen with further increases in lung volume. However, a mean decrease in Ptx,dyn of 42% was evident throughout the tidal volume range (i.e., from end-tidal inspiration to end expiration). Isovolume static pressure transmission (Ptx,st) was measured in three of the five infants by inflation of the jacket in a stepwise manner with the airway closed. Measurements were made at end-tidal inspiration and lung volumes at 10, 15, and 20 cmH(2)O preset pressure. Resulting changes in Pj, esophageal pressure, and airway opening pressure were compared using linear regressions to determine Ptx,st. Mean Ptx,st to the airway opening was 56 +/- 4% (SE) at end-tidal inspiration and remained constant with increasing lung volume. We conclude that the transmission of Pj across the chest wall, during rapid thoracic compression, decreases throughout the tidal volume range but does not change with increased lung volume above end-tidal inspiration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1015-1020
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume77
Publication statusPublished - 1994

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