Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare preprocedural dental anxiety levels and postprocedural pain perception in chronic periodontitis patients during conventional-staged root surface debridement (RSD) and single-stage RSD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven adult generalized chronic periodontitis patients requiring RSD were recruited in this study. Preprocedural anxiety levels were assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and postprocedural pain perceptions were assessed using 0-10 cm visual analog scale. The subject population was divided into two groups: staged RSD (n = 18) and single-stage RSD (n = 19). Staged RSD patients visited four times as opposed to single-stage RSD patients. Data were subjected to Pearson Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rank correlation. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in dental anxiety levels or pain perceptions in both the groups. Within Group 1, there was statistical significant difference in dental anxiety levels between visit 4 and visit 3 (P = 0.037) and pain perception between visit 3 and visit 1 (P = 0.005), visit 4 and visit 1 (P = 0.002), and visit 4 and visit 2 (0.04) was statistically significant. There was a positive correlation of anxiety questionnaire (Q1-Q4) to the pain score in Group 1 which was statistically significant and in single-stage RSD. Conclusion: Conventional quadrant-wise RSD tends to cognitively condition the anxiety experience thus influencing pain experience.