Obstructive sleep apnea is a common childhood disorder which can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Enlarged adenoid and tonsils are the commonest causes, and adenotonsillectomy is the recommended first line of treatment. Obstructive sleep apnea poses as an anesthetic challenge, and it is a well-known risk factor for perioperative adverse events. The presence and severity of an obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis will influence anesthesia, pain management, and level of monitoring in recovery period. Preoperative obstructive sleep apnea assessment is necessary, and anesthetists are ideally placed to do so. Currently, there is no standardized approach to the best method of preoperative screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Focused history, clinical assessments, and knowledge regarding the strengths and limitations of available obstructive sleep apnea assessment tools will help recognize a child with obstructive sleep apnea in the preoperative setting.