Objective: Renal and cardiovascular function is improved during the first 24 hours of life in preterm ventilated baboons exposed to prenatal betamethasone (BETA). We hypothesized BETA-induced effects would be sustained through day 6 of life.Study design: Pregnant baboons received saline or BETA (6 mg) 48 and 24 hours before preterm delivery at 125 days' gestation. The newborn baboons were ventilated for 6 days, and assessed for renal, cardiovascular, and endocrine function.Results: Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values 24 hours after delivery were higher in the BETA group. Kidney Na, K-ATPase activity was higher in the BETA group by day 6. All other measures were similar in both groups by day 6.Conclusion: Prenatal BETA exposure in the premature baboon: (1) increases MAP and GFR on day 1 without measurable effects by day 6 and (2) increases kidney Na, K-ATPase activity. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.