The fragment hazard resulting from a nearby explosion is a major concern in the design of structures which may be subjected to blast loads. This paper presents a predictive method based on the theories of continuum damage mechanics and mechanics of micro-crack development, and numerical simulation to determine the probabilistic fragment size distribution and the launch distances. Theoretical derivations are presented to calculate fragment distribution. The fragmentation process is modeled according to the crack initiation and propagation, which depend on the material damage levels and are estimated using continuum damage mechanics theory. The proposed method involves two steps. First a finite element model is developed to estimate the material damage, fragment distribution and the ejection velocity. Then a simple algorithm is used to predict the fragment trajectory and the launch distance based on the fragment size and the ejection velocity. A masonry wall is used as an example in this study. The wall is modeled with both the distinctive consideration of the brick and mortar material properties and the homogenized masonry material properties. The reliability and efficiency of using the homogenized masonry material model in predicting the masonry wall damage and fragmentation are proven. The program AUTODYN is used in this study to conduct the numerical simulations with the proposed models linked to it as user subroutines. The numerical results indicate that the masonry fragments approximately follow the Weibull distribution, which is consistent with some empirical fragment distributions. The proposed method avoids using erosion technique, which inevitably results in a loss of fragment mass, and avoids discretizing the structure into particles or predefining the failure planes, which may lead to unrealistic prediction of damage propagation and evolution and therefore inaccurate fragmentation process and fragment size distributions.
Wang, M., Hao, H., Ding, Y., & Li, Z. X. (2009). Prediction of fragment size and ejection distance of masonry wall under blast load using homogenized masonry material properties. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 36(6), 808-820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2008.11.012