Exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This metabolic abnormality is principally due to overproduction and/or decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and is a consequence of pathogenic genetic variations and other coexistent medical conditions, particularly obesity and insulin resistance. Accumulation of TRL in the postprandial state promotes the formation of small, dense low-density lipoproteins, as well as oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which compound the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (weight loss and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (statins, fibrates, niacin, ezetimibe, and n-3 fatty acid supplementation) could involve their favorable effects on TRL metabolism. New agents, such as dual peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α/δ agonists, diacylglycerol, inhibitors of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, antisense oligonucleotides for apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein C-III, and incretin-based therapies, may enhance the treatment of postprandial lipemia, but their efficacy needs to be tested in clinical end point trials. Further work is required to develop a simple clinical protocol for investigating postprandial lipemia, as well as internationally agreed management guidelines for this type of dyslipidemia.