Poor dietary diversity and low adequacy of micronutrient intakes among rural Indonesian lactating women from Sumedang district, West Java

Sofa Rahmannia, Aly Diana, Dimas Erlangga Luftimas, Dida Akhmad Gurnida, Dewi Marhaeni Diah Herawati, Lisa Anne Houghton, Rosalind Susan Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Information on micronutrient adequacy of diets of rural Indonesian lactating women is lacking, despite their high nutrient requirements. This is of concern because deficits in micronutrient intakes may compromise the health of both mothers and infants. This study aimed to assess micronutrient adequacy and dietary diversity (DD) among rural lactating women and explore relationships between micronutrient adequacy, DD, and intakes of energy and food groups consumed. We measured in-home 12-h weighed food records and 12-h recalls over three non-consecutive days from 121 exclusively breastfeeding women at 2-5 months postpartum. Next, we calculated intakes of energy and 11 micronutrients and estimated probability of adequacy (PA) for usual intakes of 11 micronutrients for each women taking into account national fortification of wheat flour with thiamin, riboflavin, folate, zinc, and iron. We assessed DD from nine food groups consumed. Energy and macronutrient balance were within recommended ranges, yet population prevalence of adequacy was less than 50% for niacin, vitamins B6 and C, and less than 60% for calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin A, all micronutrients not targeted by the national wheat flour fortification program. In contrast, population prevalence of adequacy for the fortified micronutrients was at least 60%, with iron and zinc attaining 79% and 97%, respectively. Overall mean population prevalence of micronutrient adequacy was 57% and mean (±SD) DD score was 4.3±1.2. Mean PAs, a composite measure based on individual PAs over 11 micronutrients, were strongly correlated with energy intakes and with DD scores. In the multivariate models with maternal education and wealth index as covariates, organ meats were the most important determinant of mean PA after controlling for energy intake. In conclusion, despite wheat flour fortification, lactating mothers remained at risk of multiple micronutrient inadequacies. Increasing intakes of animal source foods including organ meats, and fruits and vegetables should be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0219675
Pages (from-to)e0219675
JournalPLoS One
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


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