Atherosclerosis is a major etiology of cardiovascular disease that causes considerable mortality. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a fundamental attributor to atherosclerosis. Therefore, there seems to be an essential place for antioxidant therapy besides the current treatment protocols for coronary heart disease. Polyphenols are a class of compounds with substantial antioxidant properties that have shown the ability to reduce LDL oxidation in preclinical studies. However, clinical evidence has not been as conclusive although offering many promising signs. This review aims to examine the trials that have evaluated how dietary intake of polyphenols in different forms might influence the oxidation of LDL. Lowering the circulating cholesterol, incorporation into LDL particles, and enhancing systemic antioxidant activity are among the main mechanisms of action for polyphenols for lowering oxLDL. On the other hand, the population under study significantly affects the impact on oxLDL, as the type of the supplement and phenolic content. To conclude, although the polyphenols might decrease inflammation and enhance endothelial function via lowering oxLDL, there are still many gaps in our knowledge that need to be filled with further high-quality studies.