Polyamines are small aliphatic amines that are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. These growth regulators have been implicated in abiotic and biotic stresses as well as plant development and morphogenesis. Several studies have also suggested a key role of polyamines during fruit set and early development. Polyamines have also been linked to fruit ripening and in the regulation of fruit qualityrelated traits. Recent studies indicate that during ripening of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, a decline in total polyamine contents is observed together with an increased catabolism of these growth regulators. In this review, we explore the current knowledge on polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism during fruit set and ripening. The study of the role of polyamine metabolism in fruit ripening indicates the possible application of these natural polycations to control ripening and postharvest decay as well as to improve fruit quality traits.